Table 1

Pre-Clinical Studies Investigating the Effects of Adenosine Infusion on Infarct Size and No-Reflow

First Author (Year) (Ref. #)SpeciesIschemic Time (min)Reperfusion Period (h)Dose of AdministrationInfusion Time (min)Start Adenosine AdministrationConcomitant LidocaineDetermination of Optimal Dose for InfusionInfarct Size Reduction, %No-Reflow Reduction, %
Left atrium infusion
 Zhao et al. (1999) (33)Dog606140 μg/kg/min1255 min before RNoNoYes, 48Yes (↓PMN), 58
Intravenous infusion
 Goto et al. (1991) (34)Rabbit303, 72150, 370 μg/kg/min605 min before RYes/noNoNo (with or without L)
 Norton et al. (1991) (35)Rabbit30480.1, 0.3, 0.55 mg/min655 min before RYesNoYes (all doses), 32–40
 Pitarys et al. (1991) (36)Dog9072150 μg/kg/min1555 min before RYesNoYes, 52Yes (↓NP; p = NS)
 Norton et al. (1992) (37)Rabbit30480.001, 0.01, 0.1 mg/min655 min before RYesNoYes (all 3 doses), 31–53
 Vander Heide et al. (1996) (38)Dog903150 μg/kg/min1555 min before RYes/noNoNo (with or without L)
 Budde et al. (2000) (39)Dog6024140 μg/kg/min1205 min before RNoNoNoNo (↔PMN)
 Budde et al. (2004) (40)Dog606, 24, 48140 μg/kg/min1205 min before RNoNoYes, 50Yes (↓PMN)
Intracoronary infusion
 Olafsson et al. (1987) (41)Dog90243.75 mg/min60At RYesNoYes, 76Yes (↓NP; p = NS)
 Babbitt et al. (1990) (42)Dog180723.75 mg/min60At RYesNoNoNo (↔NI)
 Homeister et al. (1990) (43)Dog906150 μg/kg/min60At RYesNoYes (only with L), 56
 Velasco et al. (1991) (44)Dog40723.75 mg/min60At RYesNoYes, 63
 Forman et al. (1993) (45)Dog120243.75 mg/min60At RYesNoYes, 75

↓ = reduced; ↔ = unchanged; L = lidocaine; NI = neutrophil infiltration; NP = neutrophil plugging of capillaries; PMN = polymorphonuclear neutrophils; R = reperfusion.

  • Same study dose readministered at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h of reperfusion in groups with 24-h and 48-h reperfusion periods.

  • Significant infarct size and polymorphonuclear neutrophil reduction with single-dose adenosine in the 6-h reperfusion group versus control swine in the 6-h reperfusion group. Significant infarct size and polymorphonuclear neutrophil reduction with multidose adenosine in the 24-h and 48-h reperfusion groups (vs. control swine in the 6-h and 24-h reperfusion groups).