Table 1

Baseline Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

Sildenafil Group (n = 50)PADN Group (n = 48)p Value
Age, yrs63.0 ± 12.363.7 ± 11.80.772
Male30 (60.0)30 (62.5)0.838
Resting heart rate, beats/min75.4 ± 13.176.6 ± 13.80.658
 Atrial fibrillation29 (58.0)22 (45.8)0.312
Height, cm164.7 ± 8.4165.7 ± 8.10.578
Weight, kg68.9 ± 14.267.1 ± 14.00.536
Body mass index, kg/m225.3 ± 4.624.4 ± 4.40.290
Body surface area, m21.86 ± 0.211.84 ± 0.210.696
Anemia8 (16.0)9 (18.8)0.793
Positive biomarker11 (22.0)10 (20.8)1.000
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg125.2 ± 15.1126.7 ± 14.40.604
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg75.8 ± 10.079.3 ± 10.90.102
Mean blood pressure, mm Hg92.2 ± 10.695.1 ± 10.30.181
Etiology
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy8 (16.0)5 (10.4)0.554
 Previous myocardial infarction4 (8.0)4 (8.3)1.000
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy3 (6.0)3 (6.3)1.000
 Hypertension33 (66.0)28 (56.0)0.275
 Diabetes13 (26.0)12 (25.5)0.607
Symptom
 Dyspnea46 (92.0)43 (89.6)0.738
 Fatigue48 (96.0)42 (87.5)0.155
 Chest pain4 (8.0)2 (4.2)0.678
 Syncope2 (4.0)1 (2.1)1.000
Pleural effusion7 (14.0)3 (6.3)0.318
Serum creatinine, mmol/l91.2 ± 40.884.4 ± 37.90.400
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2101.5 ± 39.0108.1 ± 37.10.391
 <60 ml/min/1.73 m28 (16.0)3 (6.2)0.200
Heart failure
 Duration, yrs3.0 (1.1–12.0)2.5 (1.2–12.1)0.831
 Classification0.813
 HFpEF19 (38.0)19 (39.5)
 HFrEF31 (62.0)29 (60.5)
 PVR-defined CpcPH49 (98.0)46 (95.8)0.746
PH duration, yrs§1.0 (0.4–9.8)0.85 (0.3–9.5)0.818
Medications
 β-adrenergic receptor blocker38 (76.0)33 (68.8)0.346
 Nitrates5 (10.0)4 (8.3)1.000
 Diuretics42 (84.0)43 (89.6)0.554
 Digoxin24 (48.0)17 (35.4)0.226
 ACEI or ARB34 (68.0)31 (64.6)0.846
NYHA functional class0.665
 II2 (4.0)2 (4.2)
 III38 (76.0)40 (83.3)
 IV10 (20.0)6 (12.5)

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).

ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CpcPH = combined pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PADN = pulmonary artery denervation; PH = pulmonary hypertension; PVR = pulmonary vascular resistance.

  • Defined as hemoglobin <13 g/dl for men and <11 g/dl for women.

  • Defined as serum troponin ≥1 times increase of normal upper limit.

  • Time interval from the diagnosis of heart failure to recruitment.

  • § Time interval from the diagnosis of PH to recruitment.