Table 1

Baseline Characteristics According to Access Site and Sex

Male PatientsFemale PatientsMale Patients (n = 6,172)Female Patients (n = 2,232)p Value
Radial (n = 3,126)Femoral (n = 3,046)p ValueRadial (n = 1,071)Femoral (n = 1,161)p Value
Age, yrs63.8 ± 11.664.2 ± 11.60.1870.7 ± 11.270.2 ± 11.10.3664.0 ± 11.670.4 ± 11.1<0.0001
Age ≥75 yrs623 (19.9)636 (20.9)0.35445 (41.5)466 (40.1)0.501,259 (20.4)911 (40.8)<0.0001
STEMI1,552 (49.6)1,541 (50.6)0.46449 (41.9)468 (40.3)0.443,093 (50.1)917 (41.1)<0.0001
NSTE-ACS1,574 (50.4)1,505 (49.4)0.46622 (58.1)693 (59.7)0.443,079 (49.9)1,315 (58.9)<0.0001
Weight, kg80.7 ± 13.180.0 ± 12.30.02067.8 ± 12.769.4 ± 13.70.004280.3 ± 12.868.6 ± 13.2<0.0001
Body mass index, kg/m227.3 ± 3.927.1 ± 3.80.008326.4 ± 4.727.0 ± 5.10.008327.2 ± 3.826.7 ± 4.9<0.0001
Diabetes mellitus687 (22.0)656 (21.5)0.018272 (25.4)288 (24.8)0.751,343 (21.8)560 (25.1)0.0001
Insulin dependent135 (4.3)171 (5.6)0.7574 (6.9)86 (7.4)0.75306 (5.0)160 (7.2)0.0001
Current smoker1,218 (39.0)1,141 (37.5)0.36241 (22.5)287 (24.7)0.422,359 (38.2)528 (23.7)<0.0001
Hypercholesterolemia1,292 (41.3)1,340 (44.0)0.035507 (47.3)552 (47.5)0.922,632 (42.6)1,059 (47.4)0.0001
Hypertension1,839 (58.8)1,830 (60.1)0.86786 (73.4)856 (73.7)0.863,669 (59.4)1,642 (73.6)<0.0001
Family history of CAD861 (27.5)861 (28.3)0.53285 (26.6)286 (24.6)0.281,722 (27.9)571 (25.6)0.035
Previous MI473 (15.1)486 (16.0)0.37112 (10.5)132 (11.4)0.49959 (15.5)244 (10.9)<0.0001
Previous PCI501 (16.0)474 (15.6)0.62109 (10.2)111 (9.6)0.63975 (15.8)220 (9.9)<0.0001
 Radial access94 (3.0)63 (2.1)0.01925 (2.3)21 (1.8)0.38157 (2.5)46 (2.1)0.20
 Femoral access225 (7.2)234 (7.7)0.4751 (4.8)52 (4.5)0.75459 (7.4)103 (4.6)<0.0001
 Both radial and femoral access29 (0.9)32 (1.1)0.637 (0.7)3 (0.3)0.1661 (1.0)10 (0.4)0.017
 Access site unknown153 (4.9)145 (4.8)0.8126 (2.4)35 (3.0)0.40298 (4.8)61 (2.7)<0.0001
Previous CABG92 (2.9)124 (4.1)0.01619 (1.8)22 (1.9)0.83216 (3.5)41 (1.8)0.0001
Previous TIA or stroke135 (4.3)147 (4.8)0.3460 (5.6)83 (7.1)0.14282 (4.6)143 (6.4)0.0007
Peripheral vascular disease249 (8.0)272 (8.9)0.1792 (8.6)100 (8.6)0.98521 (8.4)192 (8.6)0.82
COPD182 (5.8)201 (6.6)0.2168 (6.3)82 (7.1)0.50383 (6.2)150 (6.7)0.39
History of renal failure36 (1.2)36 (1.2)0.9110 (0.9)23 (2.0)0.04172 (1.2)33 (1.5)0.26
Dialysis3 (0.1)3 (0.1)1.001 (0.1)1 (0.1)1.006 (0.1)2 (0.1)0.92
Clinical presentation
 Cardiac arrest59 (1.9)66 (2.2)0.4426 (2.4)17 (1.5)0.098125 (2.0)43 (1.9)0.78
 Killip class
  I2,845 (91.0)2,781 (91.3)0.69951 (88.8)1,019 (87.8)0.455,626 (91.2)1,970 (88.3)0.0001
  II193 (6.2)197 (6.5)0.6475 (7.0)104 (9.0)0.089390 (6.3)179 (8.0)0.0061
  III56 (1.8)49 (1.6)0.5832 (3.0)30 (2.6)0.56105 (1.7)62 (2.8)0.0018
  IV32 (1.0)19 (0.6)0.08313 (1.2)8 (0.7)0.2751 (0.8)21 (0.9)0.61
 Previous lytic therapy73 (2.3)83 (2.7)0.3321 (2.0)21 (1.8)0.88156 (2.5)42 (1.9)0.085
 Systolic arterial pressure, mm Hg138.3 ± 25.1138.1 ± 25.40.80139.1 ± 26.8140.7 ± 26.30.16138.2 ± 25.2139.9 ± 26.60.0081
 Heart rate, beats/min75.8 ± 16.375.3 ± 16.40.2777.9 ± 17.177.9 ± 17.70.9775.5 ± 16.477.9 ± 17.4<0.0001
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, %51.1 ± 9.551.0 ± 9.60.4851.7 ± 9.850.6 ± 10.20.009351.0 ± 9.551.1 ± 10.00.81
 eGFR86.2 ± 24.985.8 ± 24.50.5478.4 ± 26.276.9 ± 27.00.1986.0 ± 24.777.6 ± 26.6<0.0001
  <60 ml/min/1.73 m2433 (13.9)399 (13.2)0.39267 (25.2)316 (27.5)0.23832 (13.6)583 (26.4)<0.0001
  <30 ml/min/1.73 m220 (0.6)19 (0.6)0.9415 (1.4)30 (2.6)0.04739 (0.6)45 (2.0)<0.0001
Medications before the cath lab
 Aspirin2,960 (94.7)2,884 (94.7)0.99996 (93.0)1,070 (92.2)0.455,844 (94.7)2,066 (92.6)0.0003
 Clopidogrel1,445 (46.2)1,386 (45.5)0.57570 (53.2)611 (52.6)0.782,831 (45.9)1,181 (52.9)<0.0001
 Prasugrel411 (13.1)402 (13.2)0.9574 (6.9)66 (5.7)0.23813 (13.2)140 (6.3)<0.0001
 Ticagrelor754 (24.1)758 (24.9)0.48224 (20.9)271 (23.3)0.171,512 (24.5)495 (22.2)0.028
 Enoxaparin476 (15.2)488 (16.0)0.39211 (19.7)254 (21.9)0.21964 (15.6)465 (20.8)<0.0001
 Fondaparinux309 (9.9)332 (10.9)0.19119 (11.1)136 (11.7)0.65641 (10.4)255 (11.4)0.17
 ACE inhibitor915 (29.3)899 (29.5)0.83338 (31.6)402 (34.6)0.121,814 (29.4)740 (33.2)0.0009
 Angiotensin II receptor blocker290 (9.3)290 (9.5)0.74160 (14.9)172 (14.8)0.93580 (9.4)332 (14.9)<0.0001
 Statins1,356 (43.4)1,303 (42.8)0.63456 (42.6)560 (48.2)0.00732,659 (43.1)1,016 (45.5)0.047
 Beta-blocker1,216 (38.9)1,206 (39.6)0.58478 (44.6)569 (49.0)0.0382,422 (39.2)1,047 (46.9)<0.0001
 Warfarin44 (1.4)39 (1.3)0.6628 (2.6)25 (2.2)0.4783 (1.3)53 (2.4)0.0010
 PPI1,552 (49.6)1,546 (50.8)0.38606 (56.6)646 (55.6)0.653,098 (50.2)1,252 (56.1)<0.0001
 Previous unfractionated heparin991 (31.7)961 (31.5)0.90248 (23.2)276 (23.8)0.731,952 (31.6)524 (23.5)<0.0001
 Bivalirudin4 (0.1)2 (0.1)0.690 (0.0)0 (0.0)1.006 (0.1)0 (0.0)0.35

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; CAD = coronary artery disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; MI = myocardial infarction; NSTE-ACS = non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; PPI = proton pump inhibitor; STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; TIA = transient ischemic attack.