Table 2

Procedural Characteristics According to Access Site and Sex

Male PatientsFemale PatientsMale Patients (n = 6,172)Female Patients (n = 2,232)p Value
Radial (n = 3,126)Femoral (n = 3,046)p ValueRadial (n = 1,071)Femoral (n = 1,161)p Value
No PCI attempted after coronary angiography490 (15.7)501 (16.4)0.41337 (31.5)342 (29.5)0.30991 (16.1)679 (30.4)<0.0001
CABG130 (4.2)122 (4.0)0.7625 (2.3)33 (2.8)0.45252 (4.1)58 (2.6)0.0016
Patient with significant lesion and medical treatment246 (7.9)243 (8.0)0.87244 (22.8)256 (22.0)0.68489 (7.9)500 (22.4)<0.0001
Patient without significant lesion114 (3.6)136 (4.5)0.1068 (6.3)53 (4.6)0.063250 (4.1)121 (5.4)0.0073
PCI attempted2,634 (84.3)2,542 (83.5)0.39734 (68.5)816 (70.3)0.375,176 (83.9)1,550 (69.4)<0.0001
PCI completed2,634 (84.3)2,542 (83.5)0.39733 (68.4)815 (70.2)0.375,176 (83.9)1,548 (69.4)<0.0001
Crossover162 (5.2)72 (2.4)<0.000181 (7.6)24 (2.1)<0.0001234 (3.8)105 (4.7)0.037
Medications in the cath lab
 Aspirin161 (5.2)193 (6.3)0.04561 (5.7)66 (5.7)0.99354 (5.7)127 (5.7)0.90
 Clopidogrel200 (6.4)180 (5.9)0.4269 (6.4)74 (6.4)0.95380 (6.2)143 (6.4)0.66
 Prasugrel281 (9.0)246 (8.1)0.2054 (5.0)45 (3.9)0.18527 (8.5)99 (4.4)<0.0001
 Ticagrelor283 (9.1)297 (9.8)0.3598 (9.2)98 (8.4)0.55580 (9.4)196 (8.8)0.38
 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor473 (15.1)423 (13.9)0.17100 (9.3)99 (8.5)0.50896 (14.5)199 (8.9)<0.0001
  Planned GPI354 (11.3)307 (10.1)0.1165 (6.1)65 (5.6)0.64661 (10.7)130 (5.8)<0.0001
  Bailout GPI119 (3.8)116 (3.8)1.0035 (3.3)34 (2.9)0.64235 (3.8)69 (3.1)0.12
 Unfractionated heparin1,568 (50.2)1,415 (46.5)0.0036464 (43.3)449 (38.7)0.0262983 (48.3)913 (40.9)<0.0001
  Unfractionated heparin, U/kg73.6 ± 30.173.7 ± 28.80.9281.9 ± 31.879.2 ± 27.30.2073.7 ± 29.580.5 ± 29.6<0.0001
  Subtherapeutic regimen (<50 U/kg)356 (11.4)258 (8.5)0.00013106 (9.9)75 (6.5)0.0030614 (9.9)181 (8.1)0.015
  Therapeutic regimen (≥50 U/kg)1,212 (38.8)1,157 (38.0)0.52358 (33.4)374 (32.2)0.542,369 (38.4)732 (32.8)<0.0001
 Bivalirudin1,332 (42.6)1,300 (42.7)0.96387 (36.1)437 (37.6)0.462,632 (42.6)824 (36.9)<0.0001
  Prolonged infusion post-PCI672 (21.5)647 (21.2)0.81197 (18.4)224 (19.3)0.591,319 (21.4)421 (18.9)0.012
  Average duration of post-PCI bivalirudin infusion360.0 ± 204.5372.2 ± 269.90.35370.5 ± 293.9403.7 ± 286.30.24366.0 ± 238.8388.2 ± 290.00.13
  Full bivalirudin regimen post-PCI241 (7.7)225 (7.4)0.6382 (7.7)78 (6.7)0.39466 (7.6)160 (7.2)0.57
  Average duration of full bivalirudin regimen249.3 ± 64.8272.3 ± 292.10.23288.1 ± 267.7270.7 ± 153.70.62260.4 ± 208.3279.6 ± 219.10.32
  Low bivalirudin regimen post-PCI431 (13.8)422 (13.9)0.94115 (10.7)146 (12.6)0.18853 (13.8)261 (11.7)0.011
  Average duration of low bivalirudin regimen421.9 ± 228.5425.5 ± 241.30.82429.2 ± 298.8474.8 ± 314.50.24423.7 ± 234.8454.7 ± 307.90.094
Intra-aortic balloon pump51 (1.6)68 (2.2)0.08633 (3.1)34 (2.9)0.83119 (1.9)67 (3.0)0.0037
PCI completed(n = 2,634)(n = 2,542)(n = 733)(n = 815)(n = 5,176)(n = 1,548)
TIMI flow grade 3 in all treated lesions2,501 (95.0)2,421 (95.2)0.63695 (94.8)773 (94.8)0.984,922 (95.1)1,468 (94.8)0.67
Coronary stenosis <30% in all treated lesions2,524 (95.8)2,423 (95.3)0.38695 (94.8)780 (95.7)0.414,947 (95.6)1,475 (95.3)0.64
Procedural success in all treated lesions2,446 (92.9)2,361 (92.9)0.98677 (92.4)756 (92.8)0.764,807 (92.9)1,433 (92.6)0.69
Duration of procedure, min51.8 ± 29.150.0 ± 28.30.01745.6 ± 26.945.6 ± 27.71.0050.9 ± 28.745.6 ± 27.3<0.0001
Fluoroscopic time, min11.0 (6.7–17.1)9.7 (5.5–15.2)0.889.2 (5.0–15.0)8.1 (4.2–14.4)0.4310.2 (6.0–16.2)9.0 (4.5–14.6)0.27
Treated vessel(s) per patient
 Left main coronary artery107 (4.1)88 (3.5)0.2645 (6.1)31 (3.8)0.033195 (3.8)76 (4.9)0.039
 Left anterior descending artery1,318 (50.1)1,248 (49.2)0.51367 (50.1)402 (49.3)0.752,566 (49.6)769 (49.7)0.93
 Left circumflex artery707 (26.9)709 (27.9)0.39197 (26.9)200 (24.5)0.291,416 (27.4)397 (25.7)0.18
 Right coronary artery872 (33.1)833 (32.8)0.81244 (33.3)289 (35.5)0.381,705 (33.0)533 (34.5)0.28
 Bypass graft18 (0.7)33 (1.3)0.0252 (0.3)3 (0.4)0.7451 (1.0)5 (0.3)0.015
 At least 2 vessels treated344 (13.1)339 (13.4)0.76107 (14.6)101 (12.4)0.20683 (13.2)208 (13.4)0.80
Lesions treated per patient1.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)0.921.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)0.711.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)0.52
 12,068 (78.5)1,993 (78.5)576 (78.7)657 (80.6)4,061 (78.5)1,233 (79.7)
 2454 (17.2)448 (17.6)132 (18.0)133 (16.3)902 (17.4)265 (17.1)
 3 or more111 (4.2)98 (3.9)24 (3.3)25 (3.1)209 (4.0)49 (3.2)
 At least 1 complex lesion1,393 (52.9)1,306 (51.4)0.29375 (51.2)398 (48.8)0.352,699 (52.2)773 (49.9)0.13
Median number of stents per patient1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)0.131.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)0.621.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)0.49
Overall stent length per patient, mm71.3 ± 44.970.5 ± 44.50.5466.6 ± 39.766.9 ± 42.70.8870.9 ± 44.766.8 ± 41.30.0018
Lesions
 Number of lesions with PCI(n = 3,332)(n = 3,205)(n = 919)(n = 1,000)(n = 6,537)(n = 1,919)
 Lesions stented3,052 (91.6)2,892 (90.2)0.070826 (89.9)909 (90.9)0.575,944 (90.9)1,735 (90.4)0.51
 At least 1 drug-eluting stent2,251 (67.6)2,150 (67.1)0.51565 (61.5)647 (64.7)0.0684,401 (67.3)1,212 (63.2)0.0011
 At least 1 bare-metal stent801 (24.0)742 (23.2)0.77261 (28.4)262 (26.2)0.0931,543 (23.6)523 (27.3)0.0016
 Lesions not stented280 (8.4)313 (9.8)0.07093 (10.1)91 (9.1)0.57593 (9.1)184 (9.6)0.51
TIMI flow grade pre-procedure
 0 or 11,289 (38.7)1,254 (39.2)0.80342 (37.2)371 (37.1)0.792,543 (38.9)713 (37.2)0.070
 2428 (12.9)417 (13.0)0.86103 (11.2)113 (11.3)0.95845 (12.9)216 (11.3)0.070
 31,613 (48.4)1,532 (47.8)0.90474 (51.6)516 (51.6)0.813,145 (48.1)990 (51.6)0.0042
TIMI flow grade post-procedure
 0 or 158 (1.7)53 (1.7)0.8119 (2.1)20 (2.0)0.94111 (1.7)39 (2.0)0.66
 282 (2.5)74 (2.3)0.7523 (2.5)27 (2.7)0.80156 (2.4)50 (2.6)0.53
 33,190 (95.8)3,076 (96.0)0.65877 (95.4)953 (95.3)0.316,266 (95.9)1,830 (95.4)0.50
Coronary stenosis <30%3,215 (96.5)3,080 (96.2)0.41870 (94.7)959 (95.9)0.366,295 (96.4)1,829 (95.3)0.21
Procedural success3,129 (93.9)3,012 (94.0)0.91852 (92.7)935 (93.5)0.556,141 (93.9)1,787 (93.1)0.24
Number of lesions stented(n = 3,052)(n = 2,892)(n = 826)(n = 909)(n = 5,944)(n = 1,735)
Total stent length per lesion, mm26.2 ± 14.526.0 ± 14.00.4925.1 ± 14.525.9 ± 14.60.3426.1 ± 14.325.5 ± 14.50.16
Average stent diameter per lesion, mm3.1 ± 0.53.1 ± 0.50.743.0 ± 0.42.9 ± 0.40.333.1 ± 0.53.0 ± 0.4<0.0001
At least 1 direct stenting697 (22.8)641 (22.2)0.68166 (20.1)195 (21.5)0.301,338 (22.5)361 (20.8)0.14
Post-dilatation1,382 (45.3)1,304 (45.1)0.92344 (41.6)418 (46.0)0.132,686 (45.2)762 (43.9)0.28

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (range).

GPI = glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; TIMI = Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction.