Table 1

The Patients' Characteristics, Hospital Characteristics, and Outcome of Women With SCAD in the Setting of AMI

SCAD (n = 7,347)No SCAD (n = 745,005)p ValuePropensity MatchedBias %, SMD
SCAD (n = 7,332)No SCAD (n = 14,352)
Clinical presentation<0.00010.2
 STEMI44.931.444.844.5
 NSTEMI55.168.655.255.5
Day of admission
 Weekend admission25.426.00.30725.524.53.0
Patient demographics
 Age, yrs61.7 ± 15.167.1 ± 13.2<0.000161.7 ± 15.161.9 ± 14.10.1
 Race<0.0001−1.4
  White79.174.579.277.1
  African American8.712.78.610.8
  Hispanic7.17.37.06.6
  Asian/Pacific Islander2.02.02.02.6
  Native American0.30.50.30.4
  Other2.83.02.82.6
 Median home income<0.0001−0.4
  0 to 25th percentile26.831.726.726.7
  26th to 50th percentile26.127.026.125.3
  51st to 75th percentile24.523.424.426.4
  76th to 100th percentile22.717.922.721.6
 Primary payment coverage<0.00010.6
  Medicare59.843.743.846.1
  Medicaid8.18.38.29.0
  Private insurance23.739.039.033.7
  Self-pay5.96.46.47.6
  No charge0.60.70.70.7
  Other1.91.92.02.8
Smoking history34.337.3<0.000134.534.4−0.1
Family history of CAD12.810.6<0.000112.812.41.6
Comorbidities
 Prior myocardial infarction6.79.5<0.00016,86,61.0
 Prior stroke/TIA5.36.5<0.00015.35.4−0.1
 Prior PCI8.913.1<0.00018.99.7−1.8
 Prior CABG1.54.7<0.00011.51.7−1.2
 Carotid artery disease2.42.00.0132.02.5−3.9
 Dyslipidemia64.457.8<0.000157.958.30.6
 Dementia2.23.5<0.00012.22.50.4
 Atrial fibrillation11.814.6<0.000111.711.9−1.6
 AIDS0<0.20.030
 Alcohol abuse0.71.2<0.00010.70.7−0.7
 Deficiency anemia15.518.1<0.000115.516.2−2.3
 Collagen vascular disease3.14.0<0.00013.13.8−5.2
 Chronic blood loss anemia0.80.90.3490.80.62.2
 Congestive heart failure0.40.50.3620.40.40
 Chronic pulmonary disease20.523.0<0.000120.520.6−0.5
 Coagulopathy4.84.1<0.00014.84.7−0.07
 Depression10.310.50.62010.410.7−1.0
 Diabetes, uncomplicated21.232.4<0.000121.222.5−2.4
 Diabetes, complicated3.27.1<0.00013.23.20.5
 Drug abuse1.31.70.0221.31.4−0.6
 Hypertension64.374.3<0.000164.464.31.1
 Hypothyroidism15.417.0<0.000115.515.30.7
 Liver disease1.11.20.4821.11.2−1.3
 Lymphoma0.80.4<0.00010.80.71.3
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders20.921.40.32520.919.32.5
 Metastatic cancer0.30.50.4870.30.5−3.2
 Other neurological disorders5.05.10.474.94.80.5
 Obesity17.118.70.00117.117.10.4
 Paralysis1.51.30.0031.51.22.0
 Peripheral vascular disease11.012.4<0.00011111.7−2.4
 Psychoses2.72.60.7022.72.41.7
 Pulmonary circulation disorders<0.2<0.20.456<0.2<0.20
 Renal failure8.815.8<0.00018.99.6−1.8
 Solid tumor without metastasis1.40.9<0.00011.41.13.1
 Peptic ulcer disease000.221
 Valvular heart disease<0.20.20.595<0.20.2−0.7
 Weight loss2.62.30.0472.62.7−0.9
 Acute ischemic stroke0.90.90.8010.80.9−0.4
 Intracranial hemorrhage<0.20.3<0.00010.30.4−2.8
 Gastrointestinal bleeding2.21.4<0.00012.22.2−1.5
 Cardiogenic shock9.55.6<0.00019.59.3−2.4
 Acute systolic heart failure3.54.6<0.00013.53.31.2
 Ventricular tachycardia8.24.6<0.00018.18.3−2.4
 Ventricular fibrillation5.92.5<0.00015.85.60.8
Hospital characteristics
 Bed size0.880−1.1
  Small8.58.38.38.0
  Medium23.823.723.723.9
  Large67.768.068.068.1
 Location<0.00011.8
  Rural6.06.56.05.1
  Urban non-teaching37.739.937.741.1
  Urban teaching56.353.656.353.8
 Region<0.0001−1.4
  Northeast18.318.218.417.2
  Midwest/North Central19.820.819.818.0
  South39.043.739.044.3
  West22.917.322.820.5
Revascularization
 PCI76.958.4<0.000176.976.31.5
 CABG10.88.0<0.000110.711.6−4.5
Outcome
 In-hospital mortality6.83.4<0.00016.83.8<0.0001

Values are % or mean ± SD, except as noted.

AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD = coronary artery disease; NSTEMI = non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; SCAD = spontaneous coronary dissection; SMD = standardized mean difference; STEMI = ST-elevation myocardial infarction; TIA = transient ischemic attack.

  • p value by Pearson chi-square test.