Table 3

Multivariate Model of MAEs

RR (95% CI)p Value
Age at intervention <30 days vs. ≥30 days3.34 (1.46–7.64)<0.001
Weight at catheterization
 Extremely low weight (<2 kg)1.22 (0.31–4.76)0.77
 Very low weight (2 to <4 kg)1.53 (0.39–6.03)0.54
 Low weight (4 to <6 kg)1.26 (0.75–2.1)0.38
Procedural indication
 Bacterial endocarditis prevention vs. left-sided volume overload0.64 (0.22–1.88)0.42
 Bacterial endocarditis prevention vs. pulmonary hypertension0.65 (0.21–1.99)0.44
 Left-sided volume overload vs. pulmonary hypertension1.01 (0.6–1.67)0.98
PDA classification
 Type C vs. other PDA classifications1.28 (0.8–2.04)0.30
Procedure status
 Elective vs. urgent/emergent0.82 (0.48–1.38)0.44
Hemodynamic vulnerability1.67 (0.95–2.92)0.07
Total catheterization volume
 1st quartile vs. 2nd quartile1.83 (0.63–5.26)0.26
 1st quartile vs. 3rd quartile2.03 (0.72–5.73)0.17
 1st quartile vs. 4th quartile0.87 (0.31–2.4)0.78
PDA specific catheterization volume
 1st quartile vs. 2nd quartile1.93 (0.58–6.43)0.28
 1st quartile vs. 3rd quartile1.78 (0.58–5.44)0.30
 1st quartile vs. 4th quartile2.01 (0.64–6.34)0.23

All listed values are per procedure.

CI = confidence interval; MAE = major adverse event(s); PDA = patent ductus arteriosus; RR = risk ratio.

  • As defined by Bergersen et al. (19); missing in 130 patients.

  • Among infants <6 kg.