Table 1

Baseline Characteristics in the Unmatched Population

Revascularization Group (n = 562)Non-Revascularization Group (n = 100)Standardized Difference (%)p Value
Male59.341.037.1<0.001
Age (yrs)77 ± 1082 ± 955.5<0.001
 Men75 ± 1078 ± 1028.00.094
 Women79 ± 985 ± 868.2<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)21.1 ± 3.720.2 ± 4.721.00.080
 Data missing1.45.020.40.047
Receiving welfare8.49.02.30.987
Residence status<0.001
 Living with housemates66.246.041.6
 Living alone12.89.012.3
 Staying in nursing home21.045.052.8
Cognitive impairment (assessed by GDS)3.3 ± 2.05.0 ± 2.088.3<0.001
 Dementia (GDS ≥4)38.173.075.1<0.001
ADL at registration (after CLI onset)<0.001
 Ambulatory status<0.001
  Ambulatory35.216.045.2
  In wheelchair46.343.06.6
  Bed-ridden18.541.050.8
 Independence in ADL (Katz index)2.8 ± 2.41.4 ± 2.064.7<0.001
 Width of life space (assessed by LSA)19 ± 2210 ± 1743.4<0.001
ADL before CLI onset<0.001
 Ambulatory status<0.001
  Ambulatory60.936.051.3
  In wheelchair27.837.019.8
  Bed-ridden11.227.041.0
  Data missing0.20.06.0
 Independence in ADL (Katz index)3.9 ± 2.52.2 ± 2.566.9<0.001
  Data missing0.40.08.51.000
 Width of life space (assessed by LSA)37 ± 3318 ± 2366.9<0.001
  Data missing0.51.05.31.000
Grip strength0.001
 >15 kg in men, >10 kg in women36.119.039.0
 ≤15 kg in men, ≤10 kg in women31.747.021.8
 Not measured32.234.03.8
5-m gait speed<0.001
 ≤10 s15.55.035.1
 >10 s13.99.015.4
 Not assessed70.686.037.9
EQ-5D utility score0.400 ± 0.2560.259 ± 0.31948.8<0.001
 Data missing6.022.047.2<0.001
EQ VAS43 ± 2239 ± 2417.20.178
 Data missing9.424.039.8<0.001
Diabetes mellitus63.753.021.80.055
Regular dialysis44.726.039.8<0.001
Stroke33.845.023.10.041
Coronary artery disease51.433.038.0<0.001
Heart failure27.831.07.10.587
Medication at registration<0.001
 Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor40.029.023.40.048
 Beta-blocker28.117.026.80.028
 Statin24.716.021.80.076
 Antiplatelet agent76.252.052.0<0.001
 Anticoagulant agent23.014.023.20.061
Hemoglobin (g/dl)11.1 ± 1.911.0 ± 2.14.40.697
 Data missing0.02.020.20.018
Serum albumin (g/dl)3.33 ± 0.633.08 ± 0.7136.7<0.001
 Data missing1.83.08.00.675
Left ventricular ejection fraction61 ± 1260 ± 157.40.570
 Data missing10.319.024.70.020
History of revascularization30.817.032.80.007
Tissue loss84.079.012.90.278
Infection (%)29.744.029.90.007
AP-, ABI-, or SPP-proved ischemia80.172.022.50.069
Bilateral CLI30.232.03.80.816
Contralateral major amputation5.76.01.31.000

Values are % or mean ± SD.

ABI = ankle-brachial pressure index; ADL = activities of daily living; AP = ankle pressure; CLI = critical limb ischemia; EQ-5D = EuroQol 5 Dimension; EQ VAS = EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; GDS = Global Deterioration Scale; LSA = Life-Space Assessment; SPP = skin perfusion pressure.

  • Rest pain (Rutherford category 4) with ankle pressure <50 mm Hg, ankle-brachial pressure index ≤0.39, or skin perfusion pressure ≤30 mm Hg, and tissue loss (Rutherford category 5 or 6) with ankle pressure <70 mm Hg, ankle-brachial pressure index ≤0.59, or skin perfusion pressure ≤40 mm Hg.