Table 3

Procedural Characteristics

Overall (N = 899)In-Stent CTO (n = 111)De Novo CTO (n = 788)p Value
Radial access374 (41.6)38 (34.2)336 (42.7)0.09
Successful crossing technique
 Antegrade wire escalation392 (49.5)59 (59.0)333 (48.1)0.08
 Antegrade dissection/re-entry139 (17.6)16 (16.0)123 (17.8)
 Retrograde wire escalation77 (9.7)11 (11.0)66 (9.5)
 Retrograde dissection/re-entry184 (23.2)14 (14.0)170 (24.6)
Successful crossing technique: retrograde approach261 (33.0)25 (25.0)236 (34.1)0.07
Successful crossing technique: dissection/re-entry323 (40.8)30 (30.0)293 (42.3)0.02
Use of CrossBoss80 (9.0)29 (26.1)51 (6.6)<0.001
Type of stent
 Bare-metal stents14 (1.8)0 (0)14 (2.0)0.03
 Bioresorbable scaffolds72 (9.1)2 (2.1)70 (10.0)
 DES708 (89.1)93 (97.9)615 (87.9)
 First-generation DES57 (8.1)4 (4.3)53 (8.6)0.15
 Second-generation DES651 (91.9)89 (95.7)562 (91.4)
Number of stents implanted2.21 ± 1.272.34 ± 1.312.20 ± 1.270.29
Total stent length, mm70.1 ± 42.077.3 ± 49.769.1 ± 40.70.07
Use of intravascular ultrasound116 (12.9)11 (9.9)105 (13.3)0.39
Contrast volume, ml328 ± 137302 ± 134332 ± 1370.06
Fluoroscopy time, min55 ± 3451 ± 3755 ± 330.24
Total procedure time, min127 ± 70115 ± 75128 ± 690.10
Major procedural complications22 (2.4)3 (2.7)19 (2.4)0.84
Technical success784 (87.2)97 (87.4)687 (87.2)0.95
Procedural success778 (86.5)96 (86.5)682 (86.5)0.99

Values are n (%) or mean ± SD.

CTO = chronic total occlusion; DES = drug-eluting stent(s).

  • Cases with dual radial access or cases with a single access, being radial.