Table 1

Patient Characteristics: PFO Closure Versus Medical Therapy

Mean or %p Value
Medical (n = 46)Closure (n = 40)
Age (yrs)40 ± 3.738.9 ± 5.8ns
Female35/46 (76.0)34/40 (85)ns
Migraine with aura10/46 (21.7)32/40 (80)<0.01
 Blurred vision, hemianopsia, cortical blindness7/46 (15.2)27/40 (67.5)<0.01
 Hemilateral loss of strength and paresthesias3/46 (6.5)5/40 (12.5)ns
Migraine with no aura36/46 (78.2)8/40 (20)<0.01
MIDAS classes 1–238/46 (82.6)0/40 (0)<0.01
MIDAS classes 3–48/46 (17.3)40/40 (100)<0.01
R-L shunt grade 131/46 (67.4)0/40 (0)<0.01
Mean number of migraine without aura attacks/month2.0 ± 0.71.1 ± 0.2<0.01
Mean number of migraine with aura attacks/month04.2 ± 0.8<0.01
R-L shunt grade 211/46 (23.9)18/40 (45)0.04
R-L shunt grade 34/46 (8.7)22/40 (55)<0.01
TC-D trivial shunt (<15 bubbles)27/46 (58.7)0/40 (0)<0.01
TC-D shower pattern13/46 (28.2)21/40 (52.5)0.02
TC-D curtain pattern6/46 (13.0)19/40 (47.5)<0.01
Interatrial septal aneurysm (on TEE)13/46 (6.5)40/40 (100)<0.01
White-matter lesion on cerebral MRI11/46 (23.9)25/40 (62.5)<0.01
Deficiency of anti-thrombin III, protein C, S0/46 (0)8/40 (20)<0.01
Factor V Leiden1/46 (2.2)6/40 (15)<0.01
Antiphospholipid or anticardiolipin0/46 (0)3/40 (7.5)<0.01
Hyperhomocysteinemia7/46 (15.2)23/40 (57.5)<0.01

MIDAS = Migraine Disability Assessment Score; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; PFO = patent foramen ovale; R-L = right-to-left; TC-D = transcranial Doppler; TEE = transesophageal echocardiography.