Table 1

Clinical Characteristics (N = 20)

Age, yrs60 ± 12
Male17 (85%)
BMI, kg/m227.5 ± 4.4
Diabetes mellitus9 (45%)
Hypertension10 (50%)
Hyperlipidemia15 (75%)
Congestive heart failure17 (85%)
 Class IV7 (35%)
 Class III5 (25%)
Current smoker8 (40%)
Previous MI12 (60%)
Previous PCI9 (45%)
Previous CABG8 (40%)
COPD7 (35%)
Renal failure9 (45%)
Pacemaker/ICD7 (35%)

BMI = body mass index; CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; MI = myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention.