Table 1

Patient Characteristics

Tertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3p Value
Age, yrs72.0 ± 9.070.3 ± 8.769.7 ± 9.3<0.01
Male115 (67.3)127 (74.7)117 (68.8)0.29
Diabetes78 (45.3)89 (51.7)87 (50.6)0.45
Hypertension155 (90.1)158 (91.9)158 (91.9)0.80
Dyslipidemia90 (52.3)107 (62.2)101 (58.7)0.18
Smoking, %46 (26.7)34 (19.8)40 (23.3)0.31
Previous myocardial infarction43 (25.0)36 (20.9)43 (25.0)0.58
Acute coronary syndrome35 (20.5)36 (20.9)37 (21.4)0.98
Body mass index, kg/m222.4 ± 3.123.9 ± 2.925.0 ± 3.3<0.01
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg138.1 ± 25.6141.9 ± 21.3139.4 ± 20.70.34
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl117.5 ± 33.8118.9 ± 31.1120.1 ± 36.20.78
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl51.2 ± 13.345.1 ± 12.944.5 ± 11.5<0.01
Triglyceride, mg/dl109.5 (82.0–165.0)144.5 (102.0–202.0)171.8 ± 105.1<0.01
C-reactive protein, mg/l1.0 (0.3–0.6)1.0 (0.06–0.35)8.6 ± 16.60.48
Hemoglobin A1c, %6.1 ± 1.166.4 ± 1.416.3 ± 1.130.16
Estimated GFR, ml/min62.4 ± 19.162.5 ± 24.764.3 ± 19.70.65
HOMA-IR0.90 (0.66–1.11)1.78 (1.53–2.07)3.72 (2.95–5.54)<0.01
Fasting insulin, μU/ml3.6 (2.6–4.6)6.8 (5.7–7.8)12.7 (10.3–17.2)<0.01
Fasting glucose, mg/dl99.7 ± 21.4111.3 ± 23.1132.4 ± 36.5<0.01
Aspirin144 (83.7)148 (86.0)147 (85.5)0.83
Thienopyridine derivative62 (36.0)77 (44.8)84 (48.8)0.05
Statins87 (50.6)95 (55.2)84 (48.8)0.47
Calcium-channel blocker76 (44.2)77 (44.8)63 (36.6)0.23
Beta-blockers58 (33.7)71 (41.3)65 (37.8)0.35
ACE inhibitor or ARB81 (47.1)85 (49.4)86 (50.0)0.85
Sulfonylurea33 (19.3)44 (25.6)47 (27.2)0.19
Metformin6 (3.5)12 (7.0)8 (4.7)0.32
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors21 (12.3)22 (12.8)19 (11.0)0.75
Pioglitazone23 (13.4)23 (13.4)15 (8.7)0.31

Values are n (%), mean ± SD (normally distributed data), or median (interquartile range) (not normally distributed data).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR = homeostatic models of insulin resistance; LDL = low-density lipoprotein.