Author + information
- Received September 8, 2015
- Revision received November 22, 2015
- Accepted December 17, 2015
- Published online April 11, 2016.
- Mohamad Alkhouli, MDa,∗ (, )
- Mohammad Morad, MDb,
- Craig R. Narins, MDa,c,
- Farhan Raza, MDd and
- Riyaz Bashir, MBBSd
- aDivision of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
- bDepartment of Medicine, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- cDepartment of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
- dDivision of Cardiovascular Disease, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Mohamad Alkhouli, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642.
Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an under-recognized entity that is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. In absence of a congenital anomaly, the most common cause of IVC thrombosis is the presence of an unretrieved IVC filter. Due to the substantial increase in the number of IVC filters placed in the United States and the very low filter retrieval rates, clinicians are faced with a very large population of patients at risk for developing IVC thrombosis. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data and societal guidelines with regards to the diagnosis and management of IVC thrombosis. This paper aims to enhance the awareness of this uncommon, but morbid, condition by providing a concise, yet comprehensive, review of the etiology, diagnostic approaches, and treatment strategies in patients with IVC thrombosis.
- catheter-directed thrombolysis
- deep venous thrombosis
- inferior vena cava
- pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis
- post-thrombotic syndrome
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received September 8, 2015.
- Revision received November 22, 2015.
- Accepted December 17, 2015.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation