Author + information
- Received June 1, 2016
- Revision received August 14, 2016
- Accepted August 25, 2016
- Published online November 14, 2016.
- Victor Mauri, MDa,
- Andreas Reimanna,
- Daniel Stern, MDa,
- Maximilian Scherner, MDb,
- Elmar Kuhn, MDb,
- Volker Rudolph, MDa,
- Stephan Rosenkranz, MDa,
- Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, MDb,
- Kai Friedrichs, MDa,
- Thorsten Wahlers, MDb,
- Stephan Baldus, MDa,
- Navid Madershahian, MDb and
- Tanja K. Rudolph, MDa,∗ ()
- aDepartment of Cardiology, Heart Center, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
- bDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Center, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Tanja K. Rudolph, Department of Cardiology, Heart Center, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, Cologne 50937, Germany.
Objectives The aim of this study was to identify predictors of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a balloon-expandable transcatheter valve (Edwards SAPIEN 3).
Background New-onset conduction disturbances requiring PPMI remain a major concern following TAVR. Predictors are not yet well defined.
Methods The influence of angiographic implantation depth, device landing zone calcium volume, oversizing, pre- and post-dilation, and baseline conduction disturbances on PPMI rate was analyzed in 229 patients undergoing TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 device.
Results PPMI was performed in 14.4% of patients. Patients requiring PPMI had higher left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) calcium volume in the area below the left coronary cusp (LVOTLC) and the area below right coronary cusp (LVOTRC) (LVOTLC median calcium 23.7 mm3 vs. 3.0 mm3; p < 0.001; LVOTRC median calcium 6.6 mm3 vs. 0.3 mm3; p = 0.014), a higher prevalence of pre-existing right bundle branch block (15% vs. 2%, p = 0.004), and lower implantation depth (ventricular portion of the stent frame 29 ± 12% vs. 21 ± 5%; p < 0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, LVOTLC calcium volume >13.7 mm3, LVOTRC calcium volume >4.8 mm3, pre-existing right bundle branch block, and implantation depth >25.5% emerged as independent predictors of PPMI. Upon modification of the implantation technique, aiming at a high final valve position, implantation depth decreased from 24% ventricular portion to 21% (p = 0.012), accompanied by a decrease in PPMI rate (19.2% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.038).
Conclusions LVOTLC and LVOTRC calcium load, baseline right bundle branch block, and implantation depth were identified as independent predictors of the need for PPMI post-TAVR. Patient groups with different PPMI risk could be stratified using these 4 predictors. A slightly higher valve implantation site may prevent excessive PPMI rates.
Drs. Wahlers, Baldus, Madershahian, and Rudolph are proctors for Edwards Lifesciences. Dr. Baldus also received a research grant from Edwards Lifesciences. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received June 1, 2016.
- Revision received August 14, 2016.
- Accepted August 25, 2016.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation