|vFFR Model/Study (Ref. #)||Patients,|
|Imaging Modality||CFD Simulation||Boundary Condition Strategy||Other||Versus Invasively Measured FFR||Approximate Run Time|
|Overall Diagnostic Accuracy∗||Area Under ROC Curve∗||Agreeability||Pearson Correlation Coefficient||Bias (Mean ± SD)|
|103, 159||CTCA||3D CFD||On the basis of vessel diameter and myocardial mass||Coupled lumped parameter model at outlets (HeartFlow software version 1.0)||84% (per-vessel)||0.90||Not reported quantitatively; see Bland-Altman plot in original publication||0.68|
(p < 0.0001)
|0.02 ± 0.116||Remote core laboratory computation|
|252, 407||CTCA||3D CFD||On the basis of vessel diameter and myocardial mass||Coupled lumped parameter model at outlets (HeartFlow software version 1.2)||69% (per-vessel)||0.81 (per-patient, per-vessel not reported)||Not reported quantitatively||0.63||0.06 (SD not reported)||Remote core laboratory computation|
|VIRTU-1 (13)||20, 35||CAG||Transient 3D||Pressure||Coupled lumped parameter model at outlets||97% (per-vessel)||0.97||vFFR deviated from mFFR by ± 0.06 (mean error) (Plus see Bland-Altman plot in original publication)||0.84||0.02 ± 0.080||12–24 h|
|vFAI (17)||120, 139||CAG||Steady-state 3D||Flow||Derived from ΔP-flow curve||87.8%||0.92||Not applicable†||0.78||0.00 ± 0.085||7 min|
HeartFlow NXT (10)
|251, 484||CTCA||3D CFD||On the basis of vessel diameter and myocardial mass||Coupled lumped parameter model at outlets (HeartFlow software version 1.4)||86% (per-vessel)||0.93 (per vessel)||Not reported quantitatively; see Bland-Altman plot in original publication||0.82||0.02 ± 0.074||Remote core laboratory computation|
|FFRQCA (14)||68, 77||CAG||Steady-state 3D||Mean flow (derived from TIMI frame count)||88.3%||0.93||Not reported quantitatively; see Bland-Altman plot in original publication||0.81||0.00 ± 0.06||5 min|
Data derived on the basis of our best interpretation of the published data.
3D = 3-dimensional; CAG = invasive coronary angiography; CFD = computational fluid dynamics; CTCA = computed tomographic coronary angiography; DeFACTO = Determination of Fractional Flow Reserve by Anatomic Computed Tomographic AngiOgraphy; DISCOVER-FLOW = Diagnosis of Ischemia-Causing Stenoses Obtained Via Noninvasive FFR; FFR = fractional flow reserve; mFFR = invasively measured fractional flow reserve; HeartFlow NXT = HeartFlow Analysis of Coronary Blood Flow Using CT Angiography: Next Steps; QCA = quantitative coronary angiography; ROC = receiver-operating characteristic; TIMI = Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction; vFAI = virtual functional assessment index; vFFR = virtual fractional flow reserve; VIRTU-1 = VIRTUal Fractional Flow Reserve From Coronary Angiography.