Clopidogrel Metabolism and Sites of Drug-Drug Interactions and Genetic Polymorphisms
Clopidogrel response variability is a pharmacokinetic problem primarily influenced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme activity in the generation of the active metabolite. Clopidogrel absorption may be affected by polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene. The activity of the hepatic cytochrome isoenzymes are influenced by drug-drug interactions (DDIs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and other factors such as smoking and caffeine consumption.
Modified, with permission, from Bonello et al. (2).