Author + information
- Received October 3, 2018
- Revision received December 11, 2018
- Accepted January 15, 2019
- Published online April 15, 2019.
- Jay S. Shavadia, MDa,b,∗ (, )
- Anita Y. Chen, MSa,
- Alexander C. Fanaroff, MD, MHSa,
- James A. de Lemos, MDc,
- Michael C. Kontos, MDd and
- Tracy Y. Wang, MD, MHS, MSca
- aDuke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
- bDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
- cDivision of Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas
- dPauley Heart Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Jay S. Shavadia, Duke Clinical Research Institute, 2400 Pratt Street, Room 7035, Durham, North Carolina 27705.
Objectives The aims of this study were to describe variability in intensive care unit (ICU) utilization for patients with uncomplicated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), evaluate the proportion of these patients who developed in-hospital complications requiring ICU care, and assess whether ICU use patterns and complication rates vary across categories of first medical contact to device times.
Background In the era of rapid primary percutaneous coronary intervention, ICUs may be overutilized as patients presenting with STEMI are less likely to develop complications requiring ICU care.
Methods Using data from the Chest Pain-MI Registry linked to Medicare claims, the authors examined patterns of ICU utilization among hemodynamically stable patients with STEMI ≥65 years of age treated with uncomplicated primary percutaneous coronary intervention, stratified by timing of reperfusion: early (first medical contact–to–device time ≤60 min), intermediate (61 to 90 min), or late (>90 min).
Results Of 19,507 patients with STEMI treated at 707 hospitals, 82.3% were treated in ICUs, with a median ICU stay of 1 day (interquartile range [IQR]: 1 to 2 days). The median FMC-to-device time was 79 min (IQR: 63 to 99 min); 22.0% of patients had early, 44.8% intermediate, and 33.2% late reperfusion. ICU utilization rates did not differ between patients with early, intermediate, and late reperfusion times (82%, 83%, and 82%; p for trend = 0.44). Overall, 3,159 patients (16.2%) developed complications requiring ICU care while hospitalized: 3.7% died, 3.7% had cardiac arrest, 8.7% shock, 0.9% stroke, 4.1% high-grade atrioventricular block requiring treatment, and 5.7% respiratory failure. Patients with longer FMC-to-device times were more likely to develop at least 1 of these complications (early 13.4%, intermediate 15.7%, and late 18.7%; p for trend <0.001; adjusted odds ratio [early as reference] for intermediate: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.25]; adjusted odds ratio for late: 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.37]).
Conclusions Although >80% of stable patients with STEMI are treated in the ICU after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, the risk for developing a complication requiring ICU care is 16%. Implementing a risk-based triage strategy, inclusive of factors such as degree of reperfusion delay, could optimize ICU utilization for patients with STEMI.
Dr. Fanaroff has received a career development grant from the American Heart Association (17FTF33661087). All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received October 3, 2018.
- Revision received December 11, 2018.
- Accepted January 15, 2019.
- 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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