Author + information
- Micaela Iantorno,
- Rebecca Torguson,
- Deepakraj Gajanana,
- Kyle Buchanan,
- Michael J. Lipinski,
- William S. Weintraub and
- Ron Waksman
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in men and women. However, there exist limited outcomes data for women and blacks after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the 1-year major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients undergoing PCI based on gender and race.
Within our PCI database, we identified 14,387 subjects, of whom 2331 were black men (BM), 1974 were black women (BW), 7151 were white men (WM), and 2931 were white women (WW). MACE at 1 year was assessed and proportional Cox hazard model analyses were performed to assess outcome after adjustment for confounding factors (i.e., presentation with acute myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, smoking, presentation in cardiogenic shock (CS) and age).
Average age was 65.3 +/- 11.5. The 1-year unadjusted death rate was 5.4% in WM, 8.8% in BM, 9.6% in WW, and 9.3% in BW. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and presentation with acute MI and CS,WM had the best outcomes compared to the other groups (in particular, BM had worse outcomes compared to WM and WW worse outcomes compared to WM). There was no gender difference among the black population and no race difference among white or black women (Figure). There was a significant interaction between gender and race (p=0.002).
In this large cohort of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI, we observed significant race and sex disparities in outcomes even after adjustment for clinical presentation and cardiovascular risk factors.