Author + information
- Ahmed Shawky Elserafy,
- Ramsey Hamed El-Mawardy,
- Ehab Mohammed El-Fikky and
- Tarek AbdelSalam Ibrahim
Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) may be defined as ARF that occurs within 24-72 hours of exposure to I.V. or intra-arterial iodinated contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. CIN occurs in up to 5% of hospitalized patients with normal renal function prior to injection of contrast media. It occurs more frequently in patients with renal impairment particularly if associated with diabetic nephropathy. Among all procedures utilizing contrast agents for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions are associated with the highest rates of CIN. Trimetazidine has been described as a cellular anti-ischemic agent. Previous studies demonstrated that Trimetazidine prevents the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion at both the cellular and mitochondrial levels and exerts an anti-oxidant effect. It inhibits excess release of oxygen free radicals, limits cellular acidosis, protects ATP stores, reduces membrane lipid peroxidation and inhibits neutrophil infiltration.
To evaluate the role of Trimetazidine (TMZ) in prevention of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography.
Methods and Results
This study was conducted on one hundred patients having a basal creatinine clearance below 90 ml/min and presenting for coronary angiography procedures within the period between August 2015 and June 2016. The patients were divided into two equal groups each including fifty patients where both groups received parenteral hydration in the form of isotonic saline at a rate of 1 mg/kg body weight per hour starting 12 hours before angiography and up to 12 hours thereafter. In Group 1, patients received additional medication in the form of trimetazidine 35 mg twice daily for 72 hours and starting 48 hours before the procedure which was not received in group 2 (control).
There was a significant difference as regards the rate of CIN among TMZ versus control groups (10% vs. 26%). The amount of contrast was significantly higher in the CIN group (165.00 ± 108.41 vs 89.85 ± 38.60, P=0.000).
Administration of trimetazidine in a dose of 35mg twice daily orally in conjunction with standard early saline hydration is an effective method to prevent or reduce the incidence of contrast-induced renal dysfunction following the administration of contrast media during coronary angiography procedures in patients with mild-moderate basal renal insufficiency.